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5.6 Adaptation of Social Policies

4 min readโ€ขmarch 13, 2023

I

Isabela Padilha Vilela


AP Comparative Governmentย ๐Ÿ—ณ๏ธ

90ย resources
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One of the main ways that the government can maintain its legitimacy is by providing stability. This can be a difficult task, since the processes of globalization and economic change can impact nations negatively, requiring them to adapt. In this guide, we will discuss the similar strategies used by the course countries to adapt to these social changes.

Why are social policies important?

Social policies consist of government actions that aim to promote the welfare and well-being of citizens in a nation, and it can include action in diverse areas of life, such as education, healthcare, labor, housing, among others. Social policies are implemented to face prevailing social issues in a nation, and it signals the people that the government is taking care of it.
Government that are able to implement effective social policies can increase their legitimacy because they are actively respinsing to issues and guaranteeing a higher quality of life to its citizens. ๐Ÿฅ Remember that we mentioned that the legislative has to be an adaptive and flexible force of government in other units? ๐Ÿ’ช Social policies are pieces of legislation that suggest that a legislative is observing and addressing social, cultural and political changes. If they fail to adapt, citizens will feel more compelled to vote for other candidates in later elections.

Adaptations of Social Policies in the Course Countries

In this section we will discuss the different challenges that governments face that lead to social policy adaptations and will provide you with examples in each course country.

What are some social issues these governments are trying to address?

Governments try to address social challenges to increase their approval and improve their citizens' lives, and both of these factors are correlated. If citizens are content with their lives and believe the government is taking care of them, they will improve their perception of the government. Common issues that governments across the world are trying to mitigate are poverty, illiteracy, and lack of public health. ๐Ÿ˜ท
The government also has an economic interest in improving citizen's lives. By providing them with access to resources to improve their lives, such as education and health, the population can become more productive. Educated and healthy citizens are able to integrate better in the working force and contribute to the economic activites considered important to their countries.

Social policies in the course countries

CountrySocial IssueAdaptation to social policy
UK ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡งAccess to healthcareThe UK has a comprehensive and accessible public health system, the National Health Service (NHS) which provides access to healthcare to all UK citizens.
Iran ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ทGender inequality + Access to EducationGender equity rules in Iran allow for females to vote, run for positions, and be elected to the cabinet. Women also face significant barriers to educate themselves, specially in certain higher education universities, even when they are allowed to attend college. cultural and social barriers still impede Iranian women to be fully integrated in society.
Mexico ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝAccess to abortion and education Access to abortion in Mexico depends on the state. It is a matter that it dealt as a healthcare issue in states that allow it. In states that prohibit abortion, women are subjected to prosecution. Gender quotas have been implemented in several countries to increase the representation of women in certain areas. In the political field, Mexican parties need to ensure that 30% of their public office nominations are represented by women.
Nigeria ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌAccess to education Women have significant disadvantage when it comes to education in Nigeria. The government has implemented initiatives, such as the Girl's Education Initiative, to provide access to girls to quality education.
Russia ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บLaborThe Russia government has put in place to protect the workers, including minimum wage and laws on hours and conditions.
China ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณInequalityThe Chinese government has made a lot of progress in the past few years to improve the overall quality of life of its citizens through economic growth and opportunities. However, China is still a highly unequal nation with low class mobility (the capacity of citizens to ascend social classes).
International Organizations can push for certain social policies when concerning challenges arise in some countries. It is very common for these organization to take initiatives that will both advocate for the implementation of more comprehensive policies and promote actions in these nations through donations, drives and media exposure of these issues.
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