The influence of the Renaissance persisted even as the period came to a close. Artists such as Michelangelo and Donatello were highly influential and their works served as inspiration for a new generation of artists. These artists, who came after the High Renaissance, began to develop a new style of art that was heavily influenced by the ideals of the Renaissance, but also sought to create something distinct and different. This new style came to be known as Mannerism.
Mannerism is a style of art and architecture that developed in the late 16th century and lasted until the late 16th century. It is characterized by a heightened artificiality, exaggeration, and a complex style. The Mannerist style was marked by elongated, twisted, and artificial poses, and the use of unusual color combinations, asymmetry, and unexpected perspectives. The art of the Mannerism period is characterized by a deliberate departure from the classical ideals of balance, harmony and proportion.
Mannerism was a reaction to the harmony and order of the High Renaissance and was seen as a more intellectual, sophisticated and self-aware style. It was particularly popular in Italy and it was also spread to other parts of Europe, particularly in France and the Netherlands. Some of the most famous Mannerist artists include: Giorgio Vasari, Tintoretto, Bronzino and Pontormo.
The characteristics of Mannerism include:
Elongated and twisted figures: The human figures in Mannerist art are often elongated and twisted into unnatural positions, creating a sense of tension and movement.
Exaggeration: Mannerist artists often exaggerated certain aspects of the human form, such as muscles or limbs, to create a sense of drama and emphasis.
Complex compositions: Mannerist art is characterized by complex compositions with multiple figures and elements, arranged in unexpected and asymmetrical ways.
Unusual color combinations: Mannerist artists often used unexpected and unusual color combinations, such as bright, contrasting colors, to create a sense of dissonance and tension.
Intense emotional expression: Mannerist art often emphasizes intense emotional expression, with figures shown in extreme states of pleasure, pain, or despair.
Distortion of space and perspective: Mannerist artists often distorted space and perspective, creating a sense of confusion and disorientation.
Intellectual and self-aware: Mannerist artists were intellectual and self-aware, they often included hidden symbols, allegories and allusions in their works, making them challenging to interpret.
Departure from the classical ideals: Mannerism was marked by a departure from the classical ideals of balance, harmony and proportion, instead, it was characterized by a heightened artificiality, exaggeration, and a complex style.
Mannerism was replaced with
baroque art when the Catholic (or Counter) Reformation came about. Baroque is a style of art and architecture that emerged in the late 16th century and lasted until the late 17th century. It is characterized by ornate decoration, dramatic contrasts of light and shadow, and a sense of movement and dynamism. The Baroque style was marked by grandeur, drama, and opulence, and was intended to evoke strong emotional reactions in the viewer.
Baroque art is characterized by its ornate decoration, rich colors, and dynamic compositions. The Baroque period was marked by the Catholic Church's Counter-Reformation, and as a result, many Baroque churches and cathedrals were built during this time, with grand and ornate decoration, and with the goal of impressing and inspiring devotion in the viewer.
Baroque architecture is characterized by grandeur, ornate decoration, and dynamic forms, often with curved lines, dramatic contrasts of light and shadow, and a sense of movement and dynamism. Some of the most famous Baroque architects include Bernini, Borromini, and Guarini.
Baroque art and architecture were also influential in other areas of Europe, such as Spain, Portugal, and the Low Countries. Baroque art and architecture were also popular in the New World, particularly in Latin America, where the style was adapted to the local culture and materials.
The characteristics of Baroque art and architecture include:
Ornate decoration: Baroque art and architecture is characterized by ornate decoration, with a focus on grandeur, opulence, and rich details.
Dynamic compositions: Baroque art is characterized by dynamic compositions with a sense of movement and dynamism.
Dramatic contrasts of light and shadow: Baroque art and architecture often feature dramatic contrasts of light and shadow, which create a sense of drama and emphasis.
Emphasis on emotion: Baroque art and architecture is intended to evoke strong emotional reactions in the viewer, often using bold, dramatic imagery to create a sense of awe and wonder.
Use of symbolism: Baroque art and architecture often includes symbolism, allegory, and hidden meanings, which are intended to convey moral or religious messages.
Curved lines and asymmetry: Baroque architecture is characterized by the use of curved lines and asymmetry, which create a sense of movement and dynamism.
Grandeur and opulence: Baroque architecture is characterized by grandeur and opulence, with large-scale and ornate decoration, meant to impress and inspire devotion.
Adaptation to local culture: Baroque art and architecture was adapted to the local culture and materials, especially in Latin America, and it was also influenced by the local architectural traditions.
🎥 Watch: AP European History - Baroque Art
🔽 🔽 The Ecstasy of St. Theresa is one of the most well known baroque works of art.
Baroque music is a style of Western classical music that emerged in the late 16th century and lasted until the late 17th century. It is characterized by its elaborate and ornate melodies, complex counterpoint, and rich harmonies. Baroque music is also known for its emotional expressiveness and the use of ground bass, which is a repeating bass line that underlies the melody.
Baroque music was heavily influenced by the Catholic Church's Counter-Reformation, and as a result, much of the music of the period was written for religious purposes, such as the Mass, Motet, and Oratorio.
Baroque music is also characterized by its use of polyphony, which is the technique of combining several independent melodies at once. This creates a rich and complex sound, with multiple voices and instruments playing simultaneously. Some of the most famous Baroque composers include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Antonio Vivaldi, and Claudio Monteverdi.
Baroque music is also known for its use of the continuo, which is a group of instruments that provide a harmonic foundation for the other instruments to play over. The continuo group typically included a keyboard instrument such as a harpsichord or organ, and a bass instrument such as a cello or bass viol.
Baroque music has had a lasting influence on Western music, and many of the composers of the period are still widely performed and studied today.
During the Baroque period, absolute monarchs such as Louis XIV of France and Charles II of Spain, commissioned grand and opulent architectural projects to demonstrate their power and wealth.
In France, Louis XIV, also known as the Sun King, commissioned several architectural projects such as the Palace of Versailles, which was meant to be a symbol of his power and the grandeur of France. The palace was designed by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart and was meant to be a center of government and a symbol of the monarchy's power.
In Spain, Charles II, commissioned several architectural projects such as the Royal Palace of Madrid, which was designed by the architect Juan Bautista de Toledo, and the Buen Retiro Palace, which was designed by the architect Alonso Carbonell. These buildings were meant to reflect the wealth and power of the Spanish monarchy.
Other examples of Baroque architecture associated with absolute monarchs include the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, Austria, which was commissioned by Emperor Leopold I and designed by the architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, and the Peterhof Palace in St. Petersburg, Russia, which was commissioned by Peter the Great and designed by the architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli.
These architectural projects were not only meant to serve as residences for the monarchs, but also served as a symbol of the monarchy's power and grandeur, and were often used for political and diplomatic purposes.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian artist and architect who was one of the most important figures of the Baroque period. He is best known for his sculptures, such as the famous "David" and "Apollo and Daphne", as well as his architectural works such as the Baldacchino in St. Peter's Basilica.
Schönbrunn Palace is a Baroque palace located in Vienna, Austria, commissioned by Emperor Leopold I and designed by the architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach.
The Winter Palace is a Baroque palace located in St. Petersburg, Russia, which served as the residence of the Russian Tsars. It was designed by several architects, including Bartolomeo Rastrelli, who was also responsible for the design of the Peterhof Palace.
Peter Paul Rubens, Diego Velázquez, and Artemesia Gentileschi were Baroque painters known for their dynamic compositions, rich colors and dramatic contrasts of light and shadow, and emotional expressiveness.
J.S. Bach and George Frideric Handel were Baroque composers known for their complex and ornate music and their use of polyphony and ground bass. They were two of the most important figures of the Baroque music.
Caravaggio was an Italian Baroque painter known for his realistic and dramatic use of chiaroscuro, which is the use of contrasts of light and shadow to create a sense of depth and volume.