Isabela Padilha Vilela
Why is it important to study political and social cleavages? 📙
|Social Cleavage and Example
|Social Cleavage Impacts on course countries
|In the United Kingdom, ethnic and regional differences between nations such as the Scottish, English, Welsh, and Irish; religious differences between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland; and racial tensions between whites and non-European minorities whose heritage is related to the United Kingdom’s colonial history.
|In the modern era the UK has begun to devolve power to help with ethnic and regional differences in Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.
|Separatist movements have emerged in the United Kingdom as a result of the social cleavages. Other groups demanding autonomy, but not independence, have emerged in the United Kingdom.
|In Mexico, ethnic divisions between the Amerindian (indigenous) population and whites and mestizos, and regional divisions between the north and the south.
|As a result of the Zapatas uprisings of 1994 in Chiapas the Mexican government granted indigenous people the right of self-determination with the incorporation of those rights into the Constitution. Mexico has tried poverty reduction policies to help the economically depressed southern regions of the country.
|Other groups demanding autonomy, but not independence, have emerged in Mexico.
|In Nigeria, ethnic divisions among more than 250 ethnic groups (including Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo), and religious and regional cleavages between the north (predominantly Muslim) and the south (where Christians and animists are concentrated).
|WIth the 1999 Constitution Federalism was installed into the government to create a strong central government that distributes power to the states and allows Sharia law in the North.The government has also seized territory and used the military against Islamic separatist groups like Boko Haram.
|Separatist movements have emerged in Nigeria as a result of the social cleavages. Ethnicity has played a more significant role in Nigeria than in Mexico because of different colonial histories and a greater diversity and politicization of ethnic/religious identities in Nigeria.
|In Russia, cleavages between ethnic Russians, who are more than 80 percent of the population and tend to be Russian Orthodox, and minority, non-Russian populations (including the Chechens in the Caucasus
|Russia has fought two wars in Chechnya in the 1990s to prevent separatists from leaving.Putin appointed leadership to rule with brute repression to suppress the separatist movement in recent years.
|Separatist movements have emerged in Russia as a result of the social cleavages.
|In China, ethnic and regional divisions between the majority Han ethnic group and at least 55 recognized ethnic minorities, such as the Uighurs in the northwest and the Tibetans in the southwest, and between areas that have developed at different rates.
|Use of re-education camps in the Xinjang province for political socialization. Hundreds of thousands Muslim Uighurs are detained and given vocational training. Indoctrination to learn the Chinese language and obey the laws to try and prevent separatists and terrorism.
|Separatist movements have emerged in China as a result of the social cleavages.
|In Iran, religious divisions between the Shi’a Muslim majority and members of other religions, such as Christianity, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism, have resulted in a threatening atmosphere despite official recognition; within practitioners of Islam, there are divisions between the Shi’a majority and those who are Sunni. There are also ethnic cleavages between the majority Persians and several ethnic minorities, including Azerbaijanis and Kurds.
|The state has officially recognized minority religions, but groups like the Baha’i faith have been executed, imprisoned, tortured, schools closed, and community property taken by the state. The Constitution does not mention Sunnis and their rights are unclear.There have been on going clashes between the Kurds and the Iranian military.
|Separatist movements have emerged in Iran as a result of the social cleavages.