Each branch of the government has different powers, structures, and functions by design.
Congress comprises the House of Representatives (designed to represent the population) and the Senate (designed to represent the states equally), each of which is affected by chamber-specific rules and election processes. It writes laws 🖋 and passes them, but its job doesn't include implementing them.
The power of the presidency has expanded over time 🦾, and the president uses both formal and informal powers to implement their policy agenda. They direct the bureaucracy on how to proceed with policy implementation.
The judicial branch exercises the power of judicial review 🧐 to determine the constitutionality of the acts of the other branches and of state governments. It can strike down methods of policy implementation as unconstitutional .
The interactions between the branches are complex by design. Congress, the executive branch (including the bureaucracy), and the judiciary must both compete and cooperate in order to enact policy.
The implementation process is difficult, as each branch must struggle to maintain the accountability of a large federal bureaucracy charged with implementing policy.