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1.7 Comparisons in the Period from 1200-1450

8 min readjanuary 3, 2023

W

William Dramby

Riya Patel

Riya Patel


AP World History: Modern 🌍

577 resources
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A direct comparison is a method of comparing two or more things by looking at them side by side and examining their similarities and differences. A direct comparison can be used to compare almost anything, including people, objects, ideas, events, or concepts. When making a direct comparison, it is important to focus on the specific aspects of the things being compared and to consider how they are similar or different. A direct comparison can be useful in understanding the characteristics of something or in making a decision between two or more options.
College Board will challenge students to find comparisons during the same period from dramatically different parts of the world. Here are a few:

Direct Comparisons (Based on the Years)

There were many significant changes and developments that took place in the period from 1200-1450, both within Europe and in other parts of the world. Some of the key comparisons and contrasts from this period include:
  • Europe in the 1200s was marked by feudalism, while in the 1400s it was experiencing the early stages of the Renaissance, a cultural and intellectual movement that marked a shift towards greater individualism and humanism.
  • In the 1200s, the Catholic Church was a powerful force in Europe and exercised significant influence over political and cultural life. In the 1400s, the Church was facing challenges from emerging Protestant movements that rejected many of its teachings and practices.
  • In the 1200s, Europe was facing a number of external threats, including invasions by the Mongols and the Ottoman Turks. In the 1400s, these threats had receded, and Europe began to focus more on exploration and expansion overseas.
  • In the 1200s, Africa and the Middle East were important centers of trade and cultural exchange, and the trans-Saharan trade network and the Indian Ocean trade network played a key role in the global economy. In the 1400s, Europe began to emerge as a major player in global trade, and the voyages of exploration undertaken by figures such as Columbus and Vasco da Gama had a significant impact on the global economy.

Direct Comparisons (Based on Dynasties)

  • While Song China had a large bureaucracy to rule, Japan was very feudal and regional.
  • While the Abbasid Caliphate used religion to help solidify its power, Western European kingdoms were separate from the power of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • While the Swahili Coast was very interconnected to trade routes, Western Europe was very slow to develop because it was outside these trade routes.
  • While the Silk Road connected large empires of Song China and the Abbasid Caliphate, Western Europe had no land-based trade routes to help it develop.
  • In Europe, the three-field crop rotation, and Champa rice in China promoted larger populations.
  • Both the Mali Kingdom and the Abbasid Caliphate used Islam to unite peoples who were not united before.
  • Both Song Dynasty and northern India kingdoms saw an increase in religious diversity causing political and religious conflict.
  • Both Christianity and Buddhism saw various divisions in their faiths causing political and religious conflict.

New States Emerged

Mamluk Empire (Former Abbasid)
The Mamluk Sultanate was a medieval realm in the Middle East that lasted from the 13th to the 15th century. It was centered in Egypt and ruled by a series of slave soldiers, known as Mamluks, who had originally been purchased as children from various parts of the Islamic world. The Mamluks were able to overthrow their masters and establish themselves as the ruling class in Egypt, eventually expanding their territory to include much of the surrounding region. The Mamluk Sultanate is known for its military prowess and its cultural achievements, which included significant advances in science, literature, and the arts. The Mamluk Empire came to an end in 1517, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
Selijuk Empire (Former Abbasid)
The Seljuk Empire was a medieval Turkic empire that existed from the 11th to the 14th centuries. It was founded by the Seljuk Turks, a group of nomadic warriors who had migrated from Central Asia to the Middle East. The Seljuk Empire was characterized by its expansionist policies, and at its height, it controlled a vast territory that included parts of modern-day Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. The Seljuk Empire is known for its significant cultural and artistic achievements, as well as its political and military impact on the region. It was eventually conquered by the Mongols in the 13th century, and its remnants were later absorbed by the Ottoman Empire.
Delhi Sultanate (Former Gupta)
The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim empire in India that lasted from the 13th to the 16th century. It was founded in 1206 by the Turkic ruler Qutb al-Din Aibak, who established the city of Delhi as his capital. The Delhi Sultanate was known for its cultural and artistic achievements, as well as its military power. It was a period of great political and social change in India, as the Delhi Sultans, who were of Turkic and Afghan origin, introduced many new ideas and practices to the region. The Delhi Sultanate was ruled by a series of powerful dynasties, including the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, and the Sayyid dynasty. It eventually came to an end in 1526, when it was conquered by the Mughal Empire.

Former Empires Were Revived

Song Dynasty (Based on Han Dynasty)
The Song Dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that ruled from 960 to 1279. It is also known as the Song Empire, and it is considered one of the most brilliant periods in Chinese history. The Song Dynasty was characterized by its economic, cultural, and technological achievements, as well as its political and social reforms. It was a time of great prosperity and progress in China, and many important innovations took place during this period, including the development of printing, the use of gunpowder, and the adoption of a paper currency. The Song Dynasty is also known for its artistic and literary achievements, including the famous novel "The Tale of Genji" and the poetry of Li Qingzhao. The Song Dynasty came to an end in 1279, when it was conquered by the Mongols.
Mali Empire (Ghana Kingdom)
The Mali Empire was a West African state that flourished in the 13th and 14th centuries. It was founded by the Malinke people, and its capital was the city of Niani. The Mali Empire was known for its wealth, particularly its gold trade, and it was an important center of Islamic learning. The Mali Empire was ruled by a series of powerful kings, the most famous of whom was Mansa Musa, who is known for his extensive hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca in the 14th century. During his reign, the Mali Empire reached its peak of power and influence, and it extended its control over a large portion of West Africa. The Mali Empire eventually declined in the 15th century and was eventually replaced by the Songhai Empire.
Holy Roman Empire (Based on Kuman Empire)
The Holy Roman Empire was a medieval empire that was centered in Central Europe and existed from the 9th to the 19th century. It was a complex political structure that included numerous territories and jurisdictions, and it was characterized by a large degree of decentralization. The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by an elected emperor, who held the title "Emperor of the Romans," and was considered the successor to the Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire was a major power in Europe during the Middle Ages, and it played a significant role in the history of the continent. It came to an end in 1806, when it was dissolved by the last Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, following his defeat in the Napoleonic Wars.

Different Traditions Were Synthesized

Japan (Chinese and Japanese), Delhi Sultanate (Hindu and Islamic), Neo-Confucianism

Expansion in Scope

Aztecs (Mesopotamia)
The Aztecs were a Native American civilization that flourished in Mexico from the 14th to the 16th century. They were not located in Mesopotamia, which is a region in the eastern Mediterranean. The Aztecs built a powerful empire that controlled much of central and southern Mexico, and they are known for their sophisticated culture, advanced system of government, and impressive architectural and artistic achievements. The Aztecs practiced a religion that was based on the worship of a pantheon of gods, and they developed a complex system of writing and record-keeping. The Aztec Empire came to an end in the 16th century, when it was conquered by the Spanish conquistadors.
Incas (South America)
The Incas were a Native American civilization that flourished in South America in the 15th and 16th centuries. They were located in the Andes Mountains of South America and built an extensive empire that stretched along the western coast of the continent. The Incas are known for their advanced system of government, sophisticated architecture, and impressive agricultural and engineering achievements. They developed a complex system of roads and communication, and they built impressive structures such as the citadel of Machu Picchu. The Incas practiced a religion that was based on the worship of a pantheon of gods, and they had a complex system of writing and record-keeping. The Inca Empire came to an end in the 16th century, when it was conquered by the Spanish conquistadors.
City-States (East Africa)
East Africa is a large region that encompasses a diverse range of cultures and societies. During different periods of history, various city-states and empires have emerged in East Africa. Some examples of city-states that have existed in East Africa include the Swahili city-states that flourished along the eastern coast of Africa from the 9th to the 16th centuries, and the city-states of the Kingdom of Aksum, which flourished in present-day Ethiopia and Eritrea from the 1st to the 8th centuries. In more recent history, several independent city-states have also existed in East Africa, such as Mombasa and Zanzibar. These city-states have played an important role in the history and development of East Africa, and they have contributed to the region's rich cultural heritage.
City-States (Southeast Asia)
Southeast Asia is a region in Asia that has a long history of city-states. Throughout history, various city-states and empires have emerged in Southeast Asia, and these city-states have played an important role in the region's politics, culture, and economy. Some examples of city-states that have existed in Southeast Asia include the city-states of the Kingdom of Funan, which flourished in present-day Cambodia and Vietnam from the 1st to the 6th centuries, and the city-states of the Srivijaya Empire, which flourished in present-day Indonesia and Malaysia from the 7th to the 13th centuries. In more recent history, several independent city-states have also existed in Southeast Asia, such as Singapore and Brunei. These city-states have contributed to the rich cultural heritage of Southeast Asia and have played a significant role in the region's development.

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🐎Unit 1 – The Global Tapestry, 1200-1450
🐫Unit 2 – Networks of Exchange, 1200-1450
🕌Unit 3 – Land-Based Empires, 1450-1750
🍕Unit 4 – Transoceanic Interactions, 1450-1750
✊🏽Unit 5 – Revolutions, 1750-1900
🚂Unit 6 – Consequences of Industrialization, 1750-1900
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