3.12 Movement in the Early Republic

8 min readjanuary 9, 2023


James Glackin

AP US History 🇺🇸

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Immigration contributed to the increased population in America from 1750-1800. Immigration to America and migrations within the colonies caused conflict between European immigrants, Britain, Native Americans and black Africans.

European Immigrants

There are many reasons why Europeans migrated to the United States. Some came seeking economic opportunities and to start a new life in a place with more opportunities than they had in their home countries. Others came to escape religious persecution, war, or natural disasters. Some came simply to seek adventure and the chance to experience life in a new place.
In the early years of the United States, there was a lot of land available and the country was growing rapidly, which attracted many people who were looking for a new start. The availability of land and the prospect of owning property was a particularly strong draw for people from countries where land ownership was limited or not possible.
The United States also had a reputation as a place of religious freedom, which attracted many people who were seeking to practice their religion freely. It was also seen as a land of opportunity and a place where people could achieve success through hard work and determination, which attracted many immigrants who were looking for a better life for themselves and their families.


The main sources of immigration came from England, Germany and Ireland. Other groups, such as the Dutch, Swiss and French, would occupy the eastern coast of the colonies.
large numbers of Germans settled in the Midwest, particularly in Pennsylvania and the Carolinas.. Other popular destinations for German immigrants included New York City, Baltimore, and New Orleans. Here, they could practice their language, farming and German customs independently.
The Scots-Irish came from Northern Ireland by way of Scotland. Because the Germans and Quakers had taken land, the Scot-Irish had to move further west against the Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania. Many Scots-Irish emigrated to the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries, settling in various parts of the country. Some of the most popular destinations for Scots-Irish immigrants included the Appalachian Mountains, the Ohio Valley, and the Southern United States, the latter which they would fight against both Native Americans and white settlers over land and squatting rights. Many Scots-Irish immigrants were drawn to the Appalachian Mountains because of the availability of land, which they could use to establish farms and homesteads. The Ohio Valley and Southern United States were also popular destinations because of the presence of other Scots-Irish immigrants and the availability of work in industries such as tobacco and cotton farming.

Native Americans and Enslaved Africans

French and Indian War

The French and Indian War (1754-1763) was a conflict that arose in North America between Great Britain and France, who were both vying for control of the continent. It pitted the Iroquois and their British allies against the Hurons and their French. The war was part of a larger global conflict known as the Seven Years' War, which was fought between several European powers and their colonies around the world.
The war began in the Ohio Valley, where the British and French both had established colonies and were competing for control of the region. The French had allied themselves with various Native American tribes in the area, while the British had formed alliances with other tribes. The conflict quickly escalated and spread throughout North America, with both sides suffering heavy casualties and significant territorial losses.
The war ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris, which saw France cede much of its territory in North America to Great Britain. The war had a significant impact on the course of history in North America and helped to shape the modern United States. It also marked the beginning of a long and difficult relationship between the United States and Native American tribes, as the British sought to assert their control over the newly acquired lands.

Pontiac's Rebellion

Pontiac's Rebellion was a conflict that took place in the Great Lakes region of North America in the mid-18th century. It was an uprising led by the Ottawa leader Pontiac against British rule in the region.
The conflict arose in the aftermath of the French and Indian War (1754-1763), in which the British had defeated the French and taken control of much of the territory in North America, including the Great Lakes region. Many Native American tribes in the region had allied themselves with the French during the war and were unhappy with the British takeover.
Pontiac and other Native American leaders began organizing a resistance against the British in 1763. They launched a series of attacks on British forts and settlements in the Great Lakes region, and were initially quite successful.
In an effort to prevent white settlers from conflicting with Native Americans, Britain passed the Proclamation Act of 1763. This law prohibited any settlers from migrating across the Appalachian Mountains. The white colonists however defied this law and migrated west in large numbers.
The rebellion eventually faltered, and Pontiac was forced to make peace with the British in 1766. Despite their failure, it had a lasting impact on the relationship between the British and Native American tribes in the Great Lakes region. With at least two thousand colonists killed, It contributed to the deteriorating relationship between the British and the American colonies, which would eventually lead to the American Revolution.

Bacon's Rebellion

Bacon's Rebellion was a rebellion that took place in the English colony of Virginia in 1676. It was led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy and influential colonist who was unhappy with the policies of the colonial government.
The conflict began when Bacon, an indentured servant who had been appointed to lead a group of volunteer soldiers to defend the colony against attacks from Native American tribes, accused the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley, of not doing enough to protect the colony. Bacon and his followers then began attacking Native American villages and plundering their supplies, despite the governor's orders to the contrary.
Bacon and his followers, who were known as Bacon's rebels, eventually turned against the governor and his supporters, and launched a full-scale rebellion against the colonial government. The rebellion was eventually put down, and Bacon died of disease a few months later.
Bacon's Rebellion had a significant impact on the history of Virginia and the United States including:
  1. It damaged the relationship between the English colonists and the Native American tribes in the region, as Bacon and his followers had attacked Native American villages during the rebellion. This led to further conflict and tensions between the two groups.
  1. It had a lasting impact on the relationship between the colonists and the English government. Many colonists saw Bacon's Rebellion as an example of the abuses of power by the governor and other colonial officials, and it contributed to a growing sense of discontent and resentment towards the English government.
  2. It is seen as an early example of colonial resistance to authority and a precursor to the American Revolution. It helped to establish the idea that colonists had the right to resist unjust or oppressive rule, and it paved the way for future movements for independence.
  3. It forced white plantation owners to look away from white indentured servants and towards Africa for free labor in their cotton, tobacco, and rice fields. 

Transatlantic Slave Trade

The Transatlantic Slave Trade was the system of buying and selling African slaves that was used by European powers and their colonies in the Americas from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The United States was one of the countries that participated in this trade, which played a significant role in the country's history and development.
Slaves were brought to the United States from Africa, primarily from the west coast of the continent, and were used to work on plantations and in other industries, such as mining and construction. The slaves were often captured in their home countries and sold to European slave traders, who then shipped them across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas.
The transatlantic slave trade had a number of significant effects the United States' demographics and economy. By 1775, one in five people in the colonies were black, with many of them slaves in the South. It provided a cheap source of labor for the country's growing economy, and it helped to fuel the expansion of the United States into new territories. However, it also had a number of negative consequences, including the exploitation and mistreatment of slaves, the tearing apart of families, and the perpetuation of racial segregation and discrimination.
After the American Revolution, some northern states supported abolishing slavery and desired a future without slave trading. Congress passed a law to stop the importation of African slaves in 1800, however the new Constitution did not address the problem of slavery because of the fear of internal conflict for a new republic, especially from the South which relied so heavily on the free labor slavery provided as its economic foundation.

Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin

The cotton gin, which was invented in the late 18th century by Eli Whitney, was a machine that revolutionized the cotton industry by making it much easier and faster to separate the seeds from raw cotton fibers. This significantly increased the demand for slave labor in the United States.
Before the cotton gin, cotton was a relatively labor-intensive crop to process, and it was not widely grown in the United States. However, with the development of the cotton gin, cotton became a much more profitable and attractive crop for farmers, and the demand for slave labor to work on cotton plantations skyrocketed.
The increased demand for slaves also led to a surge in the importation of slaves from Africa. Many slaves were brought to the United States to work on cotton plantations, and the transatlantic slave trade, which had been declining in the late 18th century, experienced a resurgence.
The cotton industry became a major contributor to the United State's wealth and economic growth, and the expansion of cotton production into new territories helped to fuel the westward expansion of the United States.
However, the cotton gin also had a number of negative consequences, including the perpetuation of slavery and the exploitation of slaves. It also had a negative impact on the environment, as the expansion of cotton production led to the destruction of many natural habitats.
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